Guidelines for Authors

  • Submission should include a separate title page which clearly indicates the name(s) of the author(s), affiliation(s), mailing address(es), telephone number(s) and E-Mail address(es), title of the paper and up to three keywords that describe the paper.
  • The text of the full paper must include the title, but should not include the name(s) of the author(s) as papers will be blind reviewed
  • The paper should be typed in Times New Roman 12 font size with 1.5 spacing and Title in 14 font size.

Citing your references correctly is an essential part of your academic work for three main reasons:

  • to acknowledge the sources you have used as the basis of your research. Failure to do this could be construed as plagiarism.
  • to enable other people to identify and trace your sources quickly and easily.
  • to support facts and claims you have made in your text.

Citing: acknowledging within your piece of work the source from which you obtained information.

Reference: full details of the source from which you obtained your information.

Bibliography: a list of the references you have used, usually placed at the end of your text.

1. Citing references in the body of the text

NB: For citing electronic resources, please refer to Section 3.

When reference is made in the text to a particular document, the author (or editor, compiler or translator) (individual or organization) and year of publication are inserted in brackets:
Example: Agriculture still employs half a million people in rural Britain (Shucksmith, 2000).

If the author’s name occurs naturally in the sentence, only the year of publication is given:
Example: This concept is discussed by Jones (1998) …

When referring to more than one document by an author published in the same year, these are distinguished by adding lower case letters (a,b,c) after the year:
Example: (Watson, 1999a)

If there are 2 authors, the names of both should be given:
Example: (Lines and Walker, 1997)

Where there are more than 2 authors, cite the first author, followed by ‘et al’ (in italics)
Example: (Morgan et al., 1998)

If the author is unascertainable, cite (a shortened) title:
Example: (Burden of anonymity, 1948)

Page numbers should be included when there is a need to be more specific, for example when making a direct quotation:
Example: As Kelvin stated (1968, p.100) ‘the value of…’

If referencing a secondary source (a document which you have not seen but which is quoted in one of your references) the two items must be linked with the term ‘cited in’:
Example: …economic development (Jones, 2000) cited in Walker (2001).

NB (1) Whenever possible, try to read the original source;
(2) some guides to Harvard advise that you can only cite the secondary source –

Example: …according to Jones as cited by Walker (2001).

Quotations Short quotations may be run into the text, using single quotation marks (see Kelvin example above)

Longer quotations should be separated from the rest of the text by means of indentation and optional size reduction, and do not need quotation marks:

Example: Simone de Beauvoir (1972, p.365) examined her own past and wrote rather gloomily: The past is not a peaceful landscape lying there behind me, a country in which I can stroll wherever I please, and will gradually show me all its secret hills and dates. As I was moving forward, so it was crumbling.

2. Arranging references in the bibliography

are arranged alphabetically by author’s name (or title, if no author) which has been used in the body of the text.

a. Book references

Include, where possible, the following information in the order listed here:


Surname first, followed by first name(s) or initials (be consistent). Include all names if there are 2 or 3 authors; if more than 3, use the first name and then et al.

For editors, compilers or translators (instead of author), give the abbreviation ed/eds, comp/comps or trans following the name(s):
Example: Peckham, T. and Smith, G. (eds.)

Year of publication

If date not known, use: n.d. If the date is ascertainable but not printed in the document, give in brackets, adding a question mark if the date is uncertain.
Example: (1996) or (1996?)


Capitalise the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns.
Use bold, italics or underline (be consistent)
Include any sub-title, separating it from the title by a colon.

Edition Only include if not the first edition.

Series Include if relevant.

Place of publication and publisher

Use a colon to separate these elements. If not given use: s.l. (no place) and s.n. (no publisher).

Page numbers

Include if referring to a specific quotation etc.

Examples of book references:

Example: Gombrich, E. H. (1977). Art and illusion. 5th ed. London: Phaidon.
Example: Ridley, A., Peckham, M. and Clark, P. (eds.) (2003). Cell motility: from molecules to organisms. Chichester: Wiley.
Example: Royal Society (2001). The future of sites of special scientific interest (SSSIs). London: Royal Society.

b. Section/Chapter in book edited by another

The explanatory notes given in Section 2a, for books, are still relevant, but additional elements of information are also required, so:

Author(s) of section
Year of publication
Title of section
(use normal type) followed by In:
Author/Editor of whole book
Title of whole book
(use bold, italics or underlined – as for complete books)
Place of publication and publisher
Page numbers of section

Example: Smith, H. (1990). Innovation at large. In: James, S., (ed.) Science and innovation. Manchester: Novon, pp. 46-50.

c. Journal references NB: Please see Section 3 for citing electronic journals

Explanatory notes given on page 2, for books, are relevant.The elements of information required are:

Year of publication
Title of article
(use normal type)
Title of journal (use bold, italics or underlined – as for complete books)
Volume number
Issue number and/or date
Page numbers
Williams, J. (2000). Tools for achieving sustainable housing strategies in rural Gloucestershire. Planning Practice & Research 15 (3), pp.155-174.

d. Conference papers

For single papers:
Example: Studer, M. (2001). Civilian military relations and co-operation in humanitarian emergencies. Paper presented at a workshop organised by the Swiss Development. Agency, Bern, 26th January.

For papers published as part of a set of proceedings in book form, treat the reference as a section of a book.
Example: Webb, N. L. (1993). Management education reform in Canada. In: Management education in the United States: eight innovations. Proceedings of a conference, Colchester, 1991. London: Routledge.

e. Newspaper articles

Example: Hunt, P. (1999). Time is running out. Daily Telegraph, 8 February, p. 10.

f. Videos

Example: Open University (2000). Art in 14th century Siena, Florence and Padua. 5: The SpanishChapel. 25 min. London: BBC for the Open University. Videocassette.

Guidance on other types of resources, such as legal material, standards and personal communications, is available in Pears and Shields (2005).

3. Citing electronic resources

Electronic resources, including the internet, are subject to copyright in exactly the same way as printed books or journals. To show the extent of your research, and to avoid plagiarism, it is essential that you fully acknowledge all sources used, both printed and electronic, including web pages.

a. Citing electronic resources in the body of the text

As far as possible, follow the guidance given for printed sources (Section 1) - cite by author if known, by title if no identifiable author, or by URL if neither author nor title is given.

b. Arranging electronic resources in the bibliography

References to electronic resources should be integrated into your bibliography for printed sources. As far as possible, provide the same information as you would provide for a print reference (author, title, date of writing, if these are stated). Also provide the url and the date on which you retrieved it, as the web changes constantly.

Example of web page: Labour Party (2005) News and speeches: Our third term will be our best yet. [Online].Retrieved on 22 July 2005 from:[id]=tbnpf05&cHash=64dcd1591a

Example of electronic journal: Arimah, B. (2005) What drives infrastructure spending in cities of developing countries? Urban Studies 42(8), pp.1345-1368.[Online]. Retrieved on 22 July 2005 from EBSCOhostEJS database

Example of internet journal (published solely on the internet): Francis, R. and Raftery, J. (2005) Blended learning landscapes. BrookeseJournal of Learning and Teaching 1(3) October [Online]. Retrieved on 16 January 2006 from!

Example of report from a database: Mintel (2004). City breaks in the UK. Mintel Leisure Intelligence : UK. April. [Online]. Retrieved on 14 November 2005 from Mintel database

Example of report available as pdf: Commission for Rural Communities (2005). The state of the countryside 2005.Cheltenham: Countryside Agency. [Online]. Retrieved on 22 July 2005 from:

For further examples: Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2005). Cite them right: the essential guide to referencing and plagiarism. Newcastle upon Tyne: Pear Tree Books. Library copies are available.


You can use EndNote, available in pooled rooms, to build up a database of your references. EndNote will automatically format both the citations in your text and the references at the end in the style you need. For full details see

Sources of further information

Bournemouth University (n.d.).Citing references.[Online]. Retrieved on 21 July 2005 from:

Li, X. and Crane, N. (1996).Electronic styles: a handbook for citing electronicinformation. 2nd ed. Medford, N.J.: Information Today.

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2005).Cite them right: the essential guide to referencing and plagiarism Newcastle upon Tyne: Pear Tree Books.

University of Chicago Press (2003).The Chicago manual of style. 15th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.